INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "PLATO AND PLATONISM IN EUROPEAN CULTURE"
September 6-8, 2012
The presentation is dedicated to the renovatio
of Plato in the Italian Renaissance. As it is widely known, Plato was
not almost known in the Middle Ages and his legacy was restored only in
XV century thanks to Marsilio Ficino, great Florentine philosopher.
Ficino, inspired by Georgios Gemistos Plethon, used Platonic and
Neoplatonic texts in his own theological doctrine which central point
became the theory of prisca
theologia. According to Ficino, there is a consecutive development
of theology from ancient authors to the Christianity. To prove this idea,
Ficino even made his translations in "chronological" order, and
Plato and his disciples were his main sources.
On the other hand, Ficino's friend and contemporary Giovanni
Pico della Mirandola proposed another philosophical concept where Plato
was considered as one of the most important figures. According to Pico,
it is possible to create a "philosophical peace" and to harmonize
even quasi opposite philosophies (Avicenna with Averroes, John Duns Scot
with Thomas Aquinas, Plato with Aristotle). In his "900 Conclusions"
(1486) he tried to make such a concordance for the first time, however
Pico's main attempt in this field was made in
In Plato's philosophy there are two different models of memory. The first deals with teaching and research, and arises in the dialogue of the student with the teacher, or in communication of lovers as an instant awakening to the knowledge of man himself, and liberation from slavish attachment to the sensual world. The memory of the second type is interested in connection with the problem of lie and false statements. An example here is the letter that has its meaning solely for the sensual world and its deceptive strength. As Plato Leibniz recognizes the role of dialogue as a means of remembering, and speaks of memory as a way for monad to maintain and deploy innate knowledge. Leibniz acknowledges, that memory is the principle of individual identity of Self and this coincides with the Platonic doctrine of the individual eidos of soul. For him the memory of the second type is a dark side of monads, potentiality, or virtuality, of monads and in infinite process of deploying of monads this memory must be fully actualized in monads recollection.
This presentation is dedicated to the research of the formal structure of the question about the possibility of lie in the teaching of Plato. Also ontological and logical aspects of this problem are disputed. The departure point of the Plato's reasoning in the dialogue "Sophist" is the assertion of unthinkability of nonexistence in thought of the unexisting, that one opines to be existing. This assertion implies that in thought the things which are in every way are in no way. But the assertion of unconditional absence of unexisting makes it impossible to distinguish the possible from the actual and also the illusion from the reality. This is true in regard to any particular definition of the existing. That is why such formal process of thinking (the lie is presentation of the existing as unexisting or the unexisting as existing) inevitably brings one in the position of conscious lie. Because it is clear, that the asserting of contradiction in notion on the same matter is not possible without conscious commiting lie. But this doesn't necessarily means the falsity of terms of the given contradiction, which constitutes the real logical problem. The presentation takes this problem as the initial point of clarifying Plato's basic conceptions, such as "existing", "unexisting", "semblance", "apparition", "image". The analysis is performed on the basis of Plato's dialogues Sophist and Statesman.